To measure the effects of peer influence and peer selection on drinking behavior in adolescence through a rigorous statistical approach designed to unravel these interrelated processes.
We conducted systematic searches of electronic databases, thesis collections and conference proceedings to identify studies that used longitudinal network design and stochastic actor-oriented modeling to analyze drinking behavior in adolescents. Parameter estimates collected from individual studies were analyzed using multilevel random-effects models.
We identified 26 articles eligible for meta-analysis. Meta-analyses for different specifications of the peer influence effect were conducted separately. The peer influence effect was positive for every specification: for average similarity (avSim) mean log odds ratio was 1.27 with 95% confidence interval [0.04; 2.49]; for total similarity (totSim) 0.46 (95% CI = [0.44; 0.48]), and for average alter (avAlt) 0.70 (95% CI = [-0.01; 1.41]). The peer selection effect (simX) was also positive: 0.46 (95% CI = [0.28; 0.63]). Conversion log odds ratio values to Cohen’s d gives estimates from 0.25 to 0.70, which is considered as medium to large effect.
Advances in methodology for social network analysis have made it possible to accurately estimate peer influence effects free from peer selection effects. More research is necessary to clarify the roles of age, gender, and individual susceptibility on the changing behavior of adolescents under the influence of their peers. Understanding the effects of peer influence should inform practitioners and policy makers to design and deliver more effective prevention programs.
The article studies the perception of safety, social and physical disorder by the local inhabitants, and of the forms of social control over this disorder in the two enclave neighborhoods. The authors derived a set of hypotheses from the theoretical propositions regarding the spread of social disorder and social control. The study employs the survey data collected across the inhabitants of two condominiums, «Severnaya dolina» located on the outskirts of Saint Petersburg and «Sem’ stolits» located in the Leningrad region. The authors examined the relationship between the demographic, social, and economic composition of the residents and their perceived safety, the connection between the perceived safety of the residents and observation of the social or physical order, and the state of social control in case of offenses or violations of social norms. Descriptive statistics (chi-square test, t-test, ANOVA) and binary logistic regression were used as data processing methods. The authors conclude that (1) having children leads to greater anxiety about the safety of the neighborhood; (2) lack of places for safe evening walks, problems with crime and violations of social order lead to a decrease in the perceived safety of the residents; (3) residents do not distinguish between social and physical disorder, it is important for them whether the violation poses a potential threat to personal safety; (4) serious violations of the physical order create a general feeling of various norms violation, including in the form of crimes; (5) social capital is not associated with local social control; (6) willingness for local control is related to perceived security only in case of the violations of social order; (7) lack of public control (police responsiveness) can be compensated for by parochial control by residents. When comparing the effects, the authors find that perceived safety is associated with the observed violations of the physical order, the willingness to let the child go for a walk alone, the residents' accumulated social capital, and the length of their residence.
The paper focuses on discussions of partial linguistic competence and on sources of language knowledge among both Kalmyk language activists and the community of native speakers. Recent revivalist initiatives lead to the emergence of “new speakers” of minority languages whose language command is widely discussed within the community. The native speakers of a minority language may create some barriers for new speakers and evaluate their way of speaking as an inauthentic, “wrong” code. The paper deals with different sources of competence in Kalmyk: projects for teaching and learning Kalmyk, attempts to popularize it and the ethnic culture, and online communities for mothers who make the conscious decision to adopt native language practices with their children. These new sources of non-traditional knowledge are compared with other modes of language acquisition. The paper aims to analyze attitudes to a language by “new speakers”. From this point of view, the Kalmyk-speaking community displays ambiguous attitudes: there are negative attitudes toward the accents of new speakers, as well as toward the linguistic competence of the younger generation in a family. That said, there exist strongly positive evaluations of different activist initiatives, including treating the instances of mixed language as a kind of humor. The data shows that there is no strong demarcation between language acquisition in the family and other ways of learning Kalmyk.
There are many negative polarity items in Russian reinforcing the sentential negation. It may be negative pronouns with affix ni- (ničego, ničut’, nikogo) and quantifiers grammaticalized from small- size nouns. The paper deals with the new way to express emphatic negation and the process of reinforcement of negation due to including new markers of double negation in Russian. It analyzes the network of constructions with expressions ni kapli and ni razu based on the data from two corpora (General Internet-Corpus of Russian and Russian National Corpus). The paper describes the grammaticalization of the word kaplja ‘drop’ as a part of counting construction. The construction ni razu ne VP combines with a past tense form of a verb and expresses the negation of the experiential meaning. The new construction ni razu / ni kapli ne N arises in non-verbal sentences and expresses emphatic negation of affiliation to a category.
All of us cannot imagine adolescents’ daily communication without humor and making fun of each other. Jokes can help strengthen friendships, smooth out the awkwardness, or maintain status in the group, but sometimes jokes become a means of humiliation and bullying. Despite many studies, determining the demarcation line between comic and aggressive words is quite challenging. This border remains uncertain. This paper aims to identify characteristics in which a joke becomes offensive and can develop into bullying. The article presents the results of a qualitative analysis of 72 interviews with middle and high school students. We identify three situations when a joke is perceived as aggression. Firstly, if a fun statement emphasizes the differences between the adolescent and the group, it makes one feel “inferior” compared to peers. Secondly, the difference in statuses between a speaker and an interlocutor exists, leading to no reply to a joke using a joke. In that case, the joke ceases to be a part of the dialogue and becomes a means of reinforcing inequality. Thirdly, if not all participants are aware of “the rules of the game,” they cannot understand the context of reading the joke. That means the statement is interpreted in different ways by the parties, leading to resentment. The findings can help design effective bullying prevention measures in the school environment.
Player experience is often difficult to understand, and it is not always clear to game developers which game features should be eliminated or maintained. By analyzing reviews of particular games, it is possible to create high-quality games and understand player psychology and game preferences. Our pilot study aimed to find out how people evaluate their game experience based on reviews on the Steam platform and to extract its main dimensions. By utilizing the Structural Topic Model (STM), we extended previous research on main components of game experience and found topics which were not discussed in previous works. Using the community detection method, we divided our topics into seven main dimensions that connect with different strength. Our research contributes more knowledge about the processes of evaluation as a whole and game evaluation in particular.
The study deals with linguistic prejudices of citizens of the two main Russian cities, Moscow and
St. Petersburg, toward speakers of foreign languages. It aims to reveal possible recent changes in the
language ideology dominating Russian society. Monolingual and linguistically normative orientations
rooted in the Soviet ideological approach are being challenged nowadays by global processes of migration
and cultural diversification, which influence the everyday reality of Russian megalopolises. The research is
based on the analysis of two sets of data: (1) meta-discourse on language attitudes derived from interviews
with labor migrants and native Russian speakers in St. Petersburg and Moscow, and posts and comments on
issues of language, migration, and linguistic landscapes, collected from websites and social media and (2)
linguistic landscape data collected in 2016–2019, mainly in St. Petersburg, which reflect recent changes in
attitude toward linguistic diversity in public space. These data show, on the one hand, that most city
dwellers still relate to monolingual speech norms and try to implement control over public space; on the
other hand, that the tolerance toward multilingual communication has been increasing over the years. The
study suggests that these “first cracks” in monolinguals facades of Russian cities could eventually lead to
the establishing of a less rigid language regime
Social science faces tremendous growth of available data about social phenomena on the Internet; however, social science students are usually not prepared to challenges and opportunities of analyzing online data. One of the areas where this growth is especially important is social studies of consumption. In this article we discuss a prototype of the visualization tool intended to support learning netnographic analysis with computational tools
Positive mental health is considered to be a significant predictor of health and longevity; however, our understanding of the ways in which this important characteristic is represented in users’ behavior on social networking sites is limited. The goal of this study was to explore associations between positive mental health and language used in online communication in a large sample of Russian Facebook users. The five-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) was used as a self-report measure of well-being. Morphological, sentiment, and semantic analyses were performed for linguistic data. The total of 6,724 participants completed the questionnaire and linguistic data were available for 1,972. Participants’ mean age was 45.7 years (SD = 11.6 years); 73.4% were female. The dataset included 15,281 posts, with an average of 7.67 (SD = 5.69) posts per participant. Mean WHO-5 score was 60.0 (SD = 19.1), with female participants exhibiting lower scores. Use of negative sentiment words and impersonal predicates (“should statements”) demonstrated an inverse association with the WHO-5 scores. No significant correlation was found between the use of positive sentiment words and the WHO-5 scores. This study expands current understanding of the association between positive mental health and language use in online communication by employing data from a non-Western sample.
There has been a recent upsurge of interest to the Krushchev’s Thaw as not only the period of ideological liberalization, but also as a moment of broadening and deepening of social control. Yet the primary Soviet institution responsible for the social control of children and adolescents, the school, has been largely overlooked in this respect. In this paper I position the school disciplinary practices of the Thaw in the context of the high‐profile discursive and institutional trends of the epoch, including hooliganism, obshchestvennost’, and outsourcing of social control to vigilante brigades and comrades’ courts. The data come from a case study of documented disciplinary action in one rank‐and‐file school in the town of Toropetz in 1953–68. The part played by the school in the ensemble of formal and informal institutions that regulated adolescent behavior is analyzed by the systematic inquiry into the accusations worded, punishments meted out, and references to other institutions made in the disciplinary records. I argue that one of the effects of the broadening of horizontal supervision during the Thaw was a more pronounced in‐school disciplinary reaction to the out‐of‐school infringements. Seeing the school as the primary institution to exert peer pressure on the adolescent and his parents, as obshchestvennost’, the teachers felt the urge to duplicate the functions of the official penal system by their own quasi‐judicial disciplinary procedures.
Exposure to violence has been shown to negatively affect mental health and well-being. The goal of this Facebook-based study was to describe the rates of exposure to violence in a sample of Russian adults and to assess the impact of these experiences on subjective well-being and victimization-related psychological distress. Three types of victimization were assessed: physical assault by a stranger, physical assault by someone known to victim, and nonconsensual sexual experiences. The 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) was used to assess subjective well-being, and Primary Care PTSD Screen (PC-PTSD) was employed as an indicator of victimization-related psychological distress. Data were obtained from 6,724 Russian-speaking Facebook users. Significant levels of lifetime victimization were reported by the study participants. Lifetime physical assault by a stranger, physical assault by someone known to victim, and sexual assault were reported by 56.9%, 64.2%, and 54.1% of respondents, respectively. Respondents exposed to violence were more likely to report posttraumatic stress symptoms and lower levels of subjective well-being. Participants who were exposed to at least one type of violence were more likely to experience symptoms of traumatic stress (U = 1,794,250.50, p < .001, d = 0.35). Exposure to multiple forms of violence was associated with more severe traumatic stress symptoms (rs = .257, p < .001). Well-being scores were significantly lower among participants exposed to violence (t = 8.37, p < .001, d = 0.31). The study demonstrated that violence exposure is associated with reduced well-being among Russian adults. Our findings highlight the negative impact of violence exposure on subjective well-being and underscore the necessity to develop programs addressing violence exposure in Russian populations.
This paper deals with different strategies of loanverb adaptation in different Mongolic languages, trying to bridge the gap between individual descriptions of grammatical loanword adaptation in particular Mongolic languages and general typologies of verbal borrowings (such as [Wohlgemuth 2009]). The Mongolicdata allows to trace contacts with languages belonging to different structural types covering a huge territory with possible contact micro-areas. The receiving Mongolic languages are agglutinating and almost exclusively suffixing, while their donors include languages with similar properties (Turkic varieties), with inflectional morphology (Russian), and with strong isolating tendencies (Chinese, English). Accordingly, the patterns of adaptation might differ according to the properties of the donor language.
There are three adaptation strategies in Mongolic languages: indirect insertion (withderivational affixes adapting loanwords), a light verb strategy, and direct insertion. The direct insertion pattern is less common, whileindirect insertion and the light verb strategy are equally frequent. Most Mongolic varieties use only two strategies, but some Inner Mongolian dialects allow for all three patterns. One adaptation strategy may employ different markers: for example, in Khalkha, a variety of affixes facilitate indirect assertion, and in some Buryat dialects, the light verb bol- ‘become’ is used alongside the more widely attested ke- ‘do’ for adapting borrowed verbs. Variation in a particular language is thus due to the combination of different adaptation strategies and the presence of more than one marker inside one pattern. The paper discusses the distribution of adaptation strategies within a variety according to donor language or other factors.
It suggests that adaptation strategies may be viewed as areal features for Mongolic and other languages, though their precise areal distribution requires further study. The paper discusses the borrowability ofnouns and verbs. The well-known typological approach presupposes that nouns are borrowed more frequently and easily than verbs. Nevertheless, data from different Mongolic varieties shows that loanwords are sometimes treated as nouns in that a verbalizer is even added to verbal roots. Thus, it becomes less clear how relevant word class in thedonor language is for the borrowability of a given word, especially if there are no morphological clues to word class, as in Chinese.
Transformations in the linguistic makeup of Russian cities resulting from massive— in comparison with the Soviet period—migration of nonnative speakers, often with low proficiency in Russian, can be fast; acknowledgement of these transformations by society, however, demands more time. Attitudes to actual urban multilingualism are determined by the domineering monolingual ideology demanding communication only in Russian. The social inequality of native and nonnative speakers becomes apparent if we consider how different languages spoken in the city are reflected in its linguistic landscape, in other words, different written signs, both formal and informal. Saint Petersburg’s linguistic landscape underrepresents the languages of labor migrants; on the rare occasions when these languages are used, signs in Chinese (not targeting Chinese tourists) and in Uzbek can be found in places hidden from the eyes of general public. However, this trend is gradually changing; new practices drawing local citizens and migrants into interactions are emerging. This article aims at revealing the situations making migrants and their multilingual existence visible to the receiving community; it focuses not on the exclusion of migrants from the linguistic landscape but rather on new developing practices of contact and urban domains favoring such practices. The article is based on Saint Petersburg’s linguistic landscape (signs, unofficial announcements, advertising, etc.) as a primary source; as additional sources it uses interviews with labor migrants and focus groups with local citizens discussing multilingual communication, everyday linguistic practices, and public representation of languages in urban space. Ethnographic linguistic landscape analysis (ELLA), focusing on the context of communication, is used as a methodological approach to analyzing the data.
For Russia, the emergence of the enclaved high-rise housing complexes on the outskirts of big cities is a comparatively new phenomenon. It is closely knit with the peculiarities of the domestic construction and housing policy. The inhabitants of these districts face the necessity to solve multiple issues related to substantial infrastructure problems. These include access to social services and public transportation, technical maintenance of the houses, territory beautification. The process of the solution to these problems may lead to the cooperation of the inhabitants. The aim of the article is to investigate the relationship between the social characteristics of the tenants of these condominiums in a large Russian city with their readiness to participate in the solution of the neighborhood problems, e.g. in the neighborhood activism. In particular, we focus on the relation between the neighborhood effect, measured as diverse configurations of the inhabitants’ social capital forms, and the neighborhood collective efficacy - the readiness to conduct a collective action for the sake of common neighborhood good. The study is based on the original data collected in a street poll of the inhabitants of three large enclaved condominiums in the outskirts of St.Petersburg (“Severnaya Dolina”, “Sem’ Stolic” and “London”). Statistical analysis included the simple bivariate statistics and logistic regression. The results confirm the main hypothesis that the features of the social capital of the inhabitants are related to their knowledge of and participation in the neighborhood activities. Authors accept the limitation of the study: we are unable to prove the causality of the discovered effect, especially taking into account its hypothetically endogenous nature.
The paper focuses on the opportunities provided by the studies of social equalities at the levels of separate localities. The author analyzes the specifics of inequalities of success and claims in three different types of localities: rural area, small city and large city. The study is based on the data of surveys conducted by the Sociology of Education and Science Laboratory (HSE – St Petersburg) involving 8,965 ninthgraders. The following predictors were tested using linear and logistic regression models: student’s gender, student’s mother’s education levels, parental socioeconomical status and cultural capital as well as school’s status. In the case of a dependent variable presented as educational aspirations, tests for school performance were also made. The results obtained were compared using marginal effect calculations. The fndings show that each locality has its own specifcs of social reproduction. Large representative samples can only suggest a possible general logic whereas continuous sampling in particular localities enables a more accurate measurement. In this regard, knowing the local contexts helps to explain the results that were obtained.
The paper deals with negation markers mar in Chuvash in the context of negation markers in nonverbal predication in other Turkic variesties. The field data (elicited example and texts) were collected in Maloye Karachkino, Yadrinsky District, Chuvash Republic in 2017–2019, so the study concerns the Maloye Karachkino (or Poshkart) dialect. The paper describes in details the uses of negation marker mar and it claims that the negation marker mar has functions of astrictive negation conveying the meanings of identification and attribute of an object. It also negates some locative contexts. The other type of uses concerns with an intrusion of the negation marker mar into the negation of verbal predication. The negation marker mar occurs with some non-finite forms (the future participle on -as-, the infinitive ending on –ma- and the form on -malla). The paper aims to analyze the negation marker mar in Chuvash and additionally put it in the context of Volga and Siberia Turkic languages. There are related negation markers (eves in the Tuvinian language, emes in Tofa, nimes in Khakas and others) in Siberian Turkic languages and non-related ascriptive negation markers (tügel in Tatar and Bashkir, degil in Turkish). As evidenced by different corpora of Turkic languages in Sibiria and Volga, such negation markers have the same core semantic covering ascriptive negation. Their extensional meanings are, however, different, as well as their grammatical features. Thus, this short description may be first step to further research of microtypology of non-verbal negation.
In Soviet Russia, the 1920s are known as a period of an unprecedented growth of the autonomy of children in various aspects of social life. One example is the decision of the Narkompros to introduce student self-government in the Unifi ed Labor School in 1918. When raised to a national scale, the initial radical idea rapidly degraded over the following decade into a much more moderate pedagogical position that was implemented in a set of unimpressive everyday practices, predominantly meetings and duty rosters. By analyzing published and archival sources that contain evidence and opinions presented by pedagogues, teachers and students, this article traces the evolution of the idea and practices of student self-government in early Soviet Russia. The analysis of arguments in favour of expanding or limiting the agency of children in the context of self-government shows that teachers perceived the introduction of the self-government as an attack on their authority; a broad consensus existed among teachers on the necessity to control children’s agency, primarily in terms of their decision-making. A contradiction between the declared independence of children and the requisite teacher’s control was resolved by an appeal to pedagogical mastery that made it possible to render invisible the teacher’s manipulative behaviors.
The article analyses language policy in Russia from the perspective of linguistic landscape, i. e. written use of language(s) in public space. Language policy is approached as a complex phenomenon including all measures directed to language practice regulation; its actors could be official authorities, business enterprises, non-commercial organizations, and citizens. Our research on language policy in Russian cities is conducted along two lines. On the one hand, we consider federal, regional and local legislation and normative documents relating to the use of the Russian language, languages of Russian national republics, and foreign languages. On the other hand, we examine data on the linguistic landscapes of Russian cities representing different cases of multilingual communication (megalopolises attracting tourists and migrants; cities in national republics of Russia; border cities). As a result, the main tendencies of linguistic landscape regulation on legislative level and on the level of everyday practices are revealed: on the one hand, despite retaining to rather strict monolingual ideology, there is a certain growth in representation of linguistic diversity in linguistic landscapes of most observed Russian cities. This growth is evident both in the case of languages of national republics and in the case of foreign languages aimed at different categories of newcomers – tourists and labor migrants. In the process, legislation could be used by different groups of active citizens as an instrument for promoting a certain language. In some cases, mostly in the border areas, the monolingual bias of language policy still prevails and sometimes even become stronger. In general, underrepresentation of other languages than Russian reflects and helps to maintain existing inequality between their speakers and Russian-speaking majority. The paper argues for further cross-regional studies on language policy and linguistic landscape in Russia necessary for understanding global changes and challenges.
The article is dedicated to studying the theoretical concepts of status inequalities in health from the moment of their origin to the present day, their prerequisites and mutual influence, key provisions, analytical and explanatory models. The processes of static and dynamic research paradigms formation, their origins, conceptual foundations, and methodological differences are described. Problem of status inequalities in health is associated with the period of Western society’s industrialization, when changes in the structure of labor market were accompanied by increasing of urbanization and urban population density, social inequalities and infectious diseases mortality among representatives of financially deprived groups. The ongoing socio-epidemiological processes attract the attention of researchers, who had practical aim to ensure the safety of living environment. Development of scientific knowledge focused on the problems of individual and common living, leaded to formation of disciplinary-specific grounds for studying the causes of health inequalities. Over the past 40 years studying of status inequalities in health has been accompanied by better understanding of factors that affect health in various status groups and creating research methodology that supposed studying interactions between levels of social organization and mechanisms of individual social and psychological adaptation to social reality changes.